i) Eastern Front

The Eastern Front, whose chairman is the current presidential adviser Mr. Musa Mohamed Ahmed, was a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea, particularly the states ofRed Sea and Kassala. While the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, the SPLA was obliged to leave by the January 2005 agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War. Their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions, two tribal-based groups of the Arabized Beja and the ArabRashaida people, respectively.[79]

Both the Free Lions and the Beja Congress stated that government inequity in the distribution of oil profits, and for the Beja the often uncompromising Arabization campaign of the central government, was the cause of their rebellion. They demanded to have a greater say in the composition of the national government, which has been seen as a destabilizing influence on the agreement ending the conflict in Southern Sudan.[citation needed]

The Eritrean government in mid-2006 dramatically changed its position on the conflict. From being the main supporter of the Eastern Front, it decided that bringing the Sudanese government around the negotiating table for a possible agreement with the rebels would be in its best interests.[citation needed]

It was successful in its attempts and on 19 June 2006, the two sides signed an agreement on declaration of principles.[80] This was the start of four months of Eritrean-mediated negotiations for a comprehensive peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front, which culminated in signing of a peace agreement on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. The agreement covers security issues, power sharing at a federal and regional level, and wealth sharing in regards to the three Eastern states KassalaRed Sea and Al Qadarif.[citation needed] One of the agreements made between the Khartoum government and the Eastern Front was that Khartoum would push for international arbitration to solve the situation in the disputed Hala’ib Triangle which has been under Egyptian military annexation since 1995.

In July 2007, many areas in the western and southern parts of the country were devastated by flooding, prompting an immediate humanitarian response by the United Nations and partners, under the leadership of acting United Nations Resident Coordinators David Gressly and Oluseyi Bajulaiye.[81] Over 400,000 people were directly affected, with over 3.5 million at risk of epidemics.[82]The United Nations allocated US$ 13.5 million for the response from its pooled funds, and launched an appeal to the international community to cover the gap.[83] The humanitarian crisis is in danger of worsening. Following attacks in Darfur, the U.N. World Food Programme announced it could stop food aid to some parts of Darfur.[84] Banditry against truck convoys is one of the biggest problems, as it impedes the delivery of food assistance to war-stricken areas and forces a cut in monthly rations.


Info from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan

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