From independence in 1956 to a secession in 2011 the history of the Sudans is marked by civil war and military men, with residents caught in the crossfire
1956Sudan gains independence from British and Egyptian rule, forming one united country despite a civil war between north and south that began in 1955 and continues for 17 years. Here, Sudan’s flag is raised at the independence ceremony on 1 January by the prime minister, Isma’il Alazhari, in the presence of opposition leader, Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub.
Photograph: Sudan Films Unit/Sudan Films Unit
1957 Sudan is accepted on the world stage. Here, Richard Nixon, US vice president at the time, meets Muslim leader Sayed Ali al-Mirghani and the country’s second prime minister, Abdullah Khalil, on a state visit.
Photograph: Mark Kauffman/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Image
1958The military overthrows the government in a bloodless coup, and promises reforms that fail to materialise. Military chief General Ibrahim Abboud rules until a popular uprising in 1964. Here, the new government is being sworn in Khartoum
Photograph: Keystone/Getty Images
1965A coalition government is formed but fails to bring stability. A succession of revolutions and unstable governments in this period are unable to unite the country, and the fighting between north and south continues. Here, demonstrators take t othe streets of KhartoumKhartoum
Photograph: Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images
1969A visit by a young Libyan leader, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.
Photograph: Popperfoto/Popperfoto/Getty Images
1972The disparate rebel groups in the south unite to form the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SPLM) and negotiate a peace agreement with the Sudanese government in Khartoum. The Addis Ababa agreement gives the south considerable independence and a share of resources, ending the civil war and introducing 10 years of relative peace . This image shows fighters from the Anya Nya, who were part of the deal.
Photograph: John Downing/Getty Images
1972-83Sudan is welcomed into the international fold, and the government is supplied with arms and equipment by the west hoping to counteract Soviet influence during the cold war.
1978 Large oil fields are discovered, first in the Upper Nile and southern Kordofan regions and then throughout the south. Tensions between north and south are stoked by the oil discoveries, with Khartoum attempting to redraw boundaries to transfer oilfields to the north. When this fails, Khartoum begins taking the territory by force. This image shows the Thar Jath oil field in south central Sudan.
Photograph: STR/AFP/Getty Images
1983The Addis Ababa agreement officially breaks down and the second civil war begins, pitting government forces against the SPLM/A led by John Garang. The civil war forces more than four million southerners to flee, with many forced out the country.
Photograph: Scott Peterson/Getty Images
1985Jaafar Nimeiri, who seized power in 1969 and later applied sharia law throughout the country, is deposed by a popular revolt and goes into exile in Egypt. This is him on his return to Sudan in 1999
Photograph: RAOUF/Associated Press
1985Sudanese celebrate the end of Nimeiri’s 16-year reign
Photograph: Paola Crociani/AP
1989Omar al-Bashir seizes power – remaining head of state until today. His government enforces Islamic codes, banning trade unions, political parties, and other ‘non-religious’ institutions.
Photograph: Barry Iverson/The LIFE Images Collection/Getty
1998After the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania are bombed, America accuses Sudan of making chemical weapons for terrorist groups and launches a missile attack on a pharmaceutical factory outside Khartoum.
Photograph: AFP/AFP/Getty Images
1998The country is hit by famine, mostly a result of the civil war. An estimated 70,000 people die and three million are affected.
Photograph: Malcolm Linton/Getty Images
2003A new rebellion begins in Darfur. The government moves in to crush the uprising and over the next 10 years hundreds of thousands of people are killed and millions displaced in the fighting. The rebels accuse the government of engaging in ethnic cleansing, led by Arab militias known as Janjaweed that are allied with Khartoum.
Photograph: Scott Nelson/Getty Images
2005The second civil war finally ends, with both sides signing a peace agreement that promises a referendum on independence for South Sudan in six years. The deal calls for a permanent ceasefire and sharing of oil revenues. Islamic law remains in effect in the north, while its use in the south is decided regionally. Here, Sudan’s vice president, Ali Osman Taha shakes hands with rebel leader John Garang.
Photograph: SIMON MAINA/AFP/Getty Images
2005John Garang dies in a helicopter crash three weeks after being sworn in as first vice president of a power-sharing government in Sudan. Riots result, but peace efforts continue.
2006Hollywood actor George Clooney calls for a resolution to the ongoing conflict in Darfur, visiting the region and starring in a documentary that highlights the plight of refugees. Here he is addressing the UN about the situation in Darfur.
Photograph: Jemal Countess/WireImage
2009Bashir is accused by the International Criminal Court of directing the Janjaweed militia in a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against non-Arab civilians in Darfur. He is charged with war crimes, becoming the first sitting head of state to be issued with an arrest warrant by Hague
Photograph: MOHAMED NURELDIN ABDALLAH/REUTERS
2010 Sudan goes to the polls, the first national elections in 24 years. Key opposition parties boycott and there are widespread charges of fraud. Bashir is elected president with 68% of the vote. In the south, Salva Kiir, who took over from Garang, wins with 75% of the vote. Here, Kiir welcomes Bashir at Juba international airport.
Photograph: YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP/Getty Images
2011During a referendum in January, 99% of voters in the south of Sudan choose independence. In July there are widespread celebrations in Juba as South Sudan is formally inaugurated, with congratulations flooding in from world leaders.
Photograph: GORAN TOMASEVIC/REUTERS
2013In South Sudan the euphoria over independence does not last. In July Kiir dismisses his vice-president, Riek Machar, pictured, and entire cabinet. By December the country is facing a civil war, with rebel forces led by Machar battling Kiir’s government troops.
2014Sudan faces international condemnation for sentencing a woman to death because of her Christian faith. After an international outcry Meriam Ibrahim, who gave birth to a child while shackled to the floor of her cell, is released.
2014Conflict escalates in South Sudan, with thousands killed and nearly two million displaced. Among them are Martha Nyarueni and her family, seen here at their home in the town of Leer. In January Martha fled with her husband and five children into the bush, where they lived for months before returning in May to find their home burned and food stores looted.
Photograph: NICHOLE SOBECKI/AFP/Getty Images
Like Us on FaceBook!
There was an error retrieving images from Instagram. An attempt will be remade in a few minutes.
Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.
You can find our contact info on the contact us page :D
500 Word Magazine
Support the Tourism in Sudan
The Youth Factor
Children of Sudan
Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views
Ashraf Khalifa's Sponsored Tube Run in aid of Teenage Cancer Trust...Please donate generously!!!
Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.
seeing the world in high definition
Dispatches from the Anthropocene
Columns, letters and rants
Random observations about writing, photography, travel, and life
Writing about anxiety, authenticity, and what happens when we stop acting
'Every contact leaves a trace'
click me to return to front page
People and Trends
"You can't get a cup of tea big enough or a book long enough to suit me." ~C.S. Lewis
Immersive Tales for the Curious Traveler
dispatches from the wild
Just another WordPress.com weblog
Leap Out of the Deep and Sing
some of us are brave
This is why I hate intellectuals
Embrace Adventure. World Travel | Award-winning Photography| Inspiration | Tips
Creepy Spooky Lovely Nice
Over fotografie en leven.